Cleaning the tooth crowns is done through scaling, and the tooth roots are cleaned by root planing. The dentist uses a hand-held, ultrasonic scaling device for the purpose. The scaling tip is made from metal, and it dislodges the tartar deposits by vibrating at ultrasonic frequencies. Root planing is carried out using a hook-like scaling appliance that is inserted in between the tooth roots and gums. Since the procedure can be painful, the dentist will administer local anesthesia before starting it to numb the tissues.